Varicose veins: Causes, diagnosis,treatment and prevention

Varicose veins are enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins, often appearing blue or dark purple. They are caused when faulty valves in the veins allow blood to flow in the wrong direction or pool.Varicose Vein

More than 23 percent of all adults are thought to be affected by varicose veins. Approximately 1 in 4 adults in the United States is affected by varicose veins.

However, if the patient experiences swelling, aching, and painful legs and is in considerable discomfort, treatment is required. Thankfully, there are a number of treatment options available, including home-care methods.

Occasionally, in very severe cases, the varicose veins may rupture, or develop into varicose ulcers on the skin. These will also require treatment.

People who are overweight have an increased risk of varicose veins.

Causes of varicose veins

The veins have one-way valves so that the blood can travel in only one direction. If the walls of the vein become stretched and less flexible (elastic), the valves may get weaker. A weakened valve can allow blood to leak backward and eventually flow in the opposite direction. When this occurs, blood can accumulate in the vein(s), which then become enlarged and swollen.

Symptoms of varicose veins in legs

In the majority of cases, there is no pain, but signs and symptoms of varicose veins may include:

  • veins look twisted, swollen, and lumpy (bulging)
  • the veins are blue or dark purple

Some patients may also experience:Varicose Vein

  • aching legs
  • legs feel heavy, especially after exercise or at night
  • a minor injury to the affected area may result in longer bleeding than normal
  • lipodermatosclerosis – fat under the skin just above the ankle can become hard, resulting in the skin shrinking
  • swollen ankles
  • telangiectasia in the affected leg (spider veins)
  • there may be a shiny skin discoloration near the varicose veins, usually brownish or blue in color
  • venous eczema (stasis dermatitis) – skin in the affected area is red, dry, and itchy
  • when suddenly standing up, some individuals experience leg cramps
  • a high percentage of people with varicose veins also have restless legs syndrome
  • atrophie blanche – irregular whitish patches that look like scars appear at the ankles

Treatments for varicose veins

If the patient has no symptoms or discomfort and is not bothered by the sight of the varicose veins, treatment might not be necessary. However, if there are symptoms, treatment may be required to reduce pain or discomfort, address complications, such as leg ulcers, skin discoloration, or swelling.

Some patients may also want treatment for cosmetic reasons – they want to get rid of the “ugly” varicose veins.

Self-care and home treatment

Measures can be taken at home to improve pain and prevent varicose veins from worsening, these include:

  • exercise
  • losing weight
  • elevating the legs
  • avoiding prolonged standing or sitting

There are also many over the counter natural treatments. These commonly take the form of topical creams and emollients. These can help soothe pain, and improve comfort and the general appearance of varicose veins.

Diagnosing varicose veins

A physical examination, mainly visual, by a doctor will decide whether or not a patient has varicose veins. The patient will be asked to stand while the doctor checks for signs of swelling. The following diagnostic tests are sometimes ordered:

Doppler test – an ultrasound scan to check the direction of blood flow in the veins. This test also checks for blood clots or obstructions in the veins.

Color duplex ultrasound scan – this test provides color images of the structure of veins, which helps the doctor identify any abnormalities; it can also measure speed of blood flow.

The patient may also be asked questions about the symptoms. In some cases, a doctor might refer the patient to a vascular specialist.

Risk factors, complications, and prevention

The following risk factors are linked to a higher risk of having varicose veins:

Sex – females are much more likely to have varicose veins on their legs than males; it is believed that female hormones may relax veins. Therefore, taking birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy may also contribute to varicose veins.

Genetics – varicose veins often run in families.

Obesity – overweight or obese people have a significantly higher risk of developing varicose veins.

Age – the older we get, the more likely we are to develop varicose veins due to general wear and tear on vein valves.

Some jobs – jobs where the individual has to spend a long time standing up may raise the probability of having varicose veins.Varicose Vein

Pregnancy and varicose veins

Women are much more likely to develop varicose veins during their pregnancy than at any other time in their lives. Pregnant women have much more blood in their body; this places extra pressure on the circulatory system.

Additionally, changes in hormone levels can lead to a relaxation of the blood vessel walls. Both these factors raise the risk of having varicose veins.

As the uterus (womb) grows, there is more pressure on the veins in the mother’s pelvic area. In the majority of cases, the varicose veins go away after the pregnancy is over; this is not always the case, and sometimes, even if the varicose veins improve, there may be some left visible.

Complications linked to varicose veins

Any condition in which proper blood flow is undermined has a risk of complications. However, in the majority of cases, varicose veins have no complications. If complications do occur, they may include:


Thrombophlebitis – blood clots in the vein of the leg, causing inflammation of the vein.

Chronic venous insufficiency – the skin does not exchange oxygen, nutrients, and waste products with the blood properly because the blood flow is weak. Chronic venous insufficiency is not caused by varicose veins, but the two entities are closely related.

People with chronic venous insufficiency may develop varicose eczema, lipodermatosclerosis (hard and tight skin), and venous ulcers. Venous ulcers classically form around ankles and are often preceded by a discolored area. It is important to get medical evaluation for chronic venous insufficiency.

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